Importantly,we have to understand why it was created and the reason behind the creation.The development of slave patrols began when other means of slave control failed to quell enslaved people’s resistance. Slave patrol was intended to suppressed,track and kill enslave black people who were defiant to their slave masters.
Let’s take it a step further, slave patrol started off in the South around 1704 or earlier and spread throughout the thirteen colonies, lasting well beyond the American Revolution.Their functions were to enslaved persons of African descent, were organized groups of armed white men who monitored and enforced discipline upon black slaves
Laws were put into place to regulate the activities of both blacks and whites. Black persons were subjected to questioning, searches, and other harassment.It sounds way too familiar with our current times,where police are do what was done before to black people.
Let’s take a close look at the slave code and auction block.It was in place to destroy black people worth with deep fear.If caught by patrols and returned to their masters, being placed on the auction block was an option for masters who no longer wanted to deal with their “non-compliant” slaves. During these times, slaves were often neglected and
Slaves who were encountered without passes from their white “master” were expected to be returned to their owners, as stated in the slave code. Punishment for runaway slaves, such as whippings and beatings, could be expected. More than floggings and beatings, however, enslaved people feared the threat of being placed on the auction block and being separated from their families.
- Absentee Bids – This is when a prospective buyer places a bid on an item without attending the sale. The bid is submitted prior to the auction by whatever means the auctioneer has stipulated.
- Appraisal – an estimate of an item’s worth, usually performed by an expert in that particular field.
- Auction block – a raised platform on which the auctioneer shows the items to be auctioned; can also be slang for the auction itself.
AUCTION BLACK PEOPLE
- Auction chant – a rhythmic repetition of numbers and “filler words” spoken by an auctioneer in the process of conducting an auction.
- Auction fever – an emotional state elicited in the course of one or more auctions that causes a bidder to deviate from an initially chosen bidding strategy.
- Auction house – the company operating the auction (i.e., establishing the date and time of the auction, the auction rules, determining which items are to be included in the auction, registering bidders, taking payments, and delivering the goods to the winning bidders).
- Auctioneer – the person conducting the actual auction. They announce the rules of the auction and the items being auctioned, call and acknowledging bids made, and announce the winner. They generally will call the auction using auction chant.
AUCTION BLACK PEOPLE
- The auctioneer can sometimes just be the owner of the business, in this case they may hire a bid caller/s to announce the rules and call bids.
- The auctioneer may operate his/her own auction house (and thus perform the duties of both auctioneer and auction house), and/or work for another house.
- Auctioneers are frequently regulated by governmental entities, and in those jurisdictions must meet certain criteria to be licensed (be of a certain age, have no disqualifying criminal record, attend auction school, pass an examination, and pay a licensing fee).
- Auctioneers may or may not (depending on the laws of the jurisdiction and/or the policies of the auction house) bid for their own account, or if they do, must disclose this to bidders at the auction; similar rules may apply for employees of the auctioneer or the auction house.
AUCTION BLACK PEOPLE
- Bidding – the act of participating in an auction by offering to purchase an item for sale.
- Buyer’s premium – a fee paid by the buyer to the auction house; it is typically calculated as a percentage of the winning bid and added on it. Depending on the jurisdiction the buyer’s premium, in addition to the sales price, may be subject to VAT or sales tax.
- Buyout price – A price that, if accepted by a bidder, immediately ends the auction and awards the item to him/her (an example is eBay‘s “Buy It Now” feature).
- Choice – a form of bidding whereby a number of identical or similar items are bid at a single price for each item
- Clearance rate – The percentage of items that sell over the course of the auction.
- Commission – a fee paid by a consignor/seller to the auction house; it is typically calculated as a percentage of the winning bid and deducted from the gross proceeds due to the consignor/seller.
- Consignee and consignor – as pertaining to auctions, the consignor (also called the seller, and in some contexts the vendor) is the person owning the item to be auctioned or the owner’s representative, while the consignee is the auction house. The consignor maintains title until such time that an item is purchased by a bidder and the bidder pays the auction house.
AUCTION BLACK PEOPLE
- Dummy bid (a/k/a “ghost bid”) – a false bid, made by someone in collusion with the seller or auctioneer, designed to create a sense of increased interest in the item (and, thus, increased bids).
- Dynamic closing – a mechanism used to prevent auction sniping, by which the closing time is extended for a small period to allow other bidders to increase their bids.
- eBidding – electronic bidding, whereby a person may make a bid without being physically present at an auction (or where the entire auction is taking place on the Internet).
- Earnest money deposit (a/k/a “caution money deposit” or “registration deposit”) – a payment that must be made by prospective bidders ahead of time in order to participate in an auction.
- The purpose of this deposit is to deter non-serious bidders from attending the auction; by requiring the deposit, only bidders with a genuine interest in the items being sold will participate.
- This type of deposit is most often used in auctions involving high-value goods (such as real estate).
- The winning bidder has his/her earnest money applied toward the final selling price; the non-winners have theirs refunded to them.
- Escrow – an arrangement in which the winning bidder pays the amount of his/her bid to a third party, who in turn releases the funds to the seller under agreed-upon terms.
- Hammer price – the nominal price at which a lot is sold; the winner is responsible for paying any additional fees and taxes on top of this amount
- Increment – a minimum amount by which a new bid must exceed the previous bid. An auctioneer may decrease the increment when it appears that bidding on an item may stop, so as to get a higher hammer price. Alternatively, a participant may offer a bid at a smaller increment, which the auctioneer has the discretion to accept or reject.
- Lot – either a single item being sold, or a group of items (which may or may not be similar or identical, such as a “job lot” of manufactured goods) that are bid on as one unit.
- If the lot is for a group of items, the price paid is for the entire lot and the winning bidder must take all the items sold.
- Variants on a group lot bid include “choice” and “times the money” (see definitions for each).
- Example: An auction has five bath fragrance gift baskets where bidding is “lot”, and the hammer price is US$5. The winner must pay $5 (as the price is for the whole lot) and must take all five baskets.
- Minimum bid – The smallest opening bid that will be accepted.
- A minimum bid can be as little as US$0.01 (one cent) depending on the auction.
- If no one bids at the initial minimum bid, the auctioneer may lower the minimum bid so as to create interest in the item.
- The minimum bid differs from a reserve price (see definition), in that the auctioneer sets the minimum bid, while the seller sets the reserve price (if desired).
- “New money” – a new bidder, joining bidding for an item after others have bid against each other.
- No reserve auction (a/k/a “absolute auction”) – an auction in which there is no minimum acceptable price; so long as the winning bid is at least the minimum bid, the seller must honor the sale.
- Outbid (also spelled “out-bid” or “out bid”) – to bid higher than another bidder.
- Opening bid – the first bid placed on a particular lot. The opening bid must be at least the minimum bid, but may be higher (e.g., a bidder may shout out a considerably larger bid than minimum, to discourage other bidders from bidding).
- Paddle – a numbered instrument used to place a bid
- Protecting a Market – when a dealer places a bid on behalf of an artist he or she represents or otherwise has a financial interest in ensuring a high price. Artists represented by major galleries typically expect this kind of protection from their dealers.
- Proxy bid (a/k/a “absentee bid”) – a bid placed by an authorized representative of a bidder who is not physically present at the auction.
- Proxy bids are common in auctions of high-end items, such as art sales (where the proxy represents either a private bidder who does not want to be disclosed to the public, or a museum bidding on a particular item for its collection).
- If the proxy is outbid on an item during the auction, the proxy (depending on the instructions of the bidder) may either increase the bid (up to a set amount established by the bidder) or be required to drop out of the bidding for that item.
- A proxy may also be limited by the bidder in the total amount to spend on items in a multi-item auction.
- Relisting – re-selling an item that has already been sold at auction, but where the buyer did not take possession of the item (for example, in a real estate auction, the buyer did not provide payment by the closing date).
- Reserve price – A minimum acceptable price established by the seller prior to the auction, which may or may not be disclosed to the bidders.
- If the winning bid is below the reserve price, the seller has the right to reject the bid and withdraw the item or items being auctioned.
- The reserve price differs from a minimum bid (see definition), in that the seller sets the reserve price (if desired), while the auctioneer sets the minimum bid.
- Sealed bid – a submitted bid whose value is unknown to competitors.
- Sniping – the act of placing a bid just before the end of a timed auction, thus giving other bidders no time to enter new bids.
- Soft Close – When someone places a bid in the last set amount of minutes and the auction automatically extends a set period of time. Soft close prevents sniping.
- Specialist – on-staff trained professionals who put together the auction
- The “three Ds” death, divorce, or debt – sometimes a reason for an item to be sold at an auction
- Vendor bid – a bid by the person selling the item. The bid is sometimes a dummy bid (see definition) but not always.
- White Glove Sale – an auction in which every single lot is sold